Tag Archives: science

What is turbulence?


Turbulence is movement caused from chaotic or non-deterministic motion or property changes. There are many factors that can cause turbulence and it can occur in both gases and liquids. The opposite of turbulence or turbulent flow motion is laminar flow, which is when the gas or fluid has a smooth and regular motion.

When there is an interruption to the flow or either the gas or fluid. When a liquid flows into a solid surface, momentum diffuses across the boundary layer creating turbulence where the liquid meets the solid. Turbulence in the air is caused from something like two different weather fronts meeting or where a storm is forming creating a change in the air pressure. Turbulence in the air is also caused by objects such as a mountain or a building, this type of can be seen in wind tunnel experiments.

Although it is understood what turbulence exactly is, it’s hard to understand or predict the behavior of turbulence since it is an irregularity of time and space and can defy logical predictions. This is because there are several factors that can alter the movement of gas or fluid and such irregular movement involves many different rates of speed that can alter very rapidly. This is why when an airplane can be moved around in so many different ways, especially depending on where the craft is located in the turbulence.

Since air moves across the earth in many different rates of speed and pressure it contains a large amount of turbulence. Typically people can not see turbulence with the naked eye because air is clear and con not be seen. However, if particles such as a mist or clouds are in the air the turbulence can be seen moving the particles. Turbulence can also be seen if an objected is launched into the air and it’s path and speed alters as is enters different parts of the turbulence or in a wind tunnel experiment to observe aero-dynamics of something.

If water is turbulent in household plumbing, the water will come out of the tap in an irregular flow, typically described as “sputtering.” Over a fire the smoke can be seen to come off the fire fairly direct until it comes into contact with turbulence at which time it begins to swirl and eddy. Part of a fires turbulence can be caused from the heat of the air from the fire coming into contact with the cooler surrounding air.

In human relations turbulence is used to describe an unstable and unpleasant state. An example would be “Their relationship was filled with turbulence in the later years of the marriage,” or “When the child acted irrational and highly tempered it made family time very turbulent.”

What is gravity?


Gravity is a field of influence that controls how things behave in the universe. For example, if something is dropped, it falls towards the Earth instead of up into outer space. Gravity is also to be said that which keeps matter together, matter being what humans measure by mass, mass being what humans associate to touch. The more massive something is, the more matter it has, which in turn creates more gravity. So massive objects, such as planets and stars, have huge amounts of gravity or “pull.” Since stars are so massive and have so much gravity, planets will orbit them making galaxies such as the one planet Earth exists in. Other than mass, the amount of distance from something also plays a part in gravity, which is why things remain on Earth instead of flying off into outer space and into the gravitational pull of the Sun.

Something interesting to be theorized about gravity is that it is not only pulling down, it’s actually pushing in every direction in different amounts. The gravitational field of the Earth keeps us on it, however, we can defy it for a moment, by jumping off the Earth. If gravity was only pulling us down, we would no be able to lift off the ground and things would not be able to float, such as hot air balloons. Gravity can also be thought of as an outside force “pushing” in every direction, holding or pressing mass together.

Items of a smaller mass, such as humans, can not move massive objects such as the planet Earth. However, massive objects, such as the planet Earth, can plant people face first in a moment. Another contributing factor for gravity is inertia. Inertial creates gravity as well, for instance, if two people on roller-skates throw a ball back and forth, they will get pushed back farther each catch because the ball travels father. This is because the ball traveled farther each throw creating more inertia.

Albert Einstein, a scientist who lived in the 20th century, theorized that gravity is what happens when space itself is around a large mass, such as a star or a planet. So a star or planet would bend space and things would fall into them if they got within their gravitational pull. Experiments have been performed to prove that Einstein was right about this theory of gravity, however there are many questions that even Einstein could not answer. For instance, gravity being force which causes matter to be attracted to other matter, then why atoms are mostly empty space. In fact, an atom has very little matter in it at all. Also, it has not been explained how the forces that hold atoms together differ from gravity.

To date, gravity has not been defined as to what it actually is, only how it behaves. Some scientists explain gravity as being made up of particles called “gravitons” which travel at the speed of light and effect all known matter including light. However, it’s not truly known what gravity “is” in a fundamental way – only how it behaves and effects things in the universe. Therefore, the best explanation of gravity is a force created from massive objects in the universe.