Tag Archives: what is

How many weeks in a year?


A standard year, without a leap year, consists of 52 weeks. A week is a time unit consisting of seven days. There 365 days in a year, 52 weeks in a year and 12 months in a year. Year’s that begin on a Thursday and leap years that begin on a Wednesday have 53 weeks. In most parts of the world the week is the accepted time period used for work and rest days schedule.

Sometimes the term “week” is expanded, referring to other time units consisting of days, for instance, historically a week consisting of 4-10 days has been used in different parts of the world. A period of time consisting of more than days is not typically termed as a “week” since it is closer to a fortnight (a unit of time equal to fourteen days or two, seven day weeks) or a month.

The origin of the English word “week” is derived from the Old English term “wice” which stems from a Germanic term “wikon” from the root “wik.” The term “wik” means to “move, turn or change.” Prior to the acceptance of the Roman calendar, the word “wik” may have had other meanings such as a “series of successions.”

There is evidence of people using a seven day week dating back to the Jews of the 6th century BC  during the Babylonian Captivity. Both Babylonian religions and Judaism used a seven-day week for the organization of a time schedule.

What is love?


What is love? Love can be explained as a magical force that’s as mysterious and essential to human existence as gravity itself. Talking to different people about what love is will bring about many different answers, and even much debate, because like gravity, love is more of a theory than an exact definition of what it is. This is why asking a scientist, philosopher, parent, lover or priest what love is will render such different answers. Whether derived from science or inner-spiritual belief, love is something that one must meditate upon and personally experience to know what it is.

Biologically speaking, love is simply a neurological synapse in the brain. The electrical charge of love creates a permanent and intense hunger in the human spirit. People don’t have control over this sometimes unconditional sensation, inspiring the saying “love is blind.” Not so surprising when considering that the biological experience of love is just chemistry. Although the passionate sexual desire of lust releases an intense release of chemicals such as testosterone and estrogen, what is considered “true love” releases many more chemicals such as dopamine, pheromones, serotonin, norepinephrine, vasopressin and oxytocin. From a survival perspective, the feeling of love promotes evolutionary growth for longevity of sustained human life by encouraging long-term relationships for parental support. This mutual-force of parental support creates an environment for children to be safe, to feel secure and to learn survival skills for the world, hence continuing the cycle of human existence.

Love is likely something that man has pondered upon since the beginning of congregation and conscious thought itself. In ancient times people had different words for love, instead of one word that covers all the different types of the feeling. Some of the words for love include:

  • Philia – A deep, typically non-sexual love shared between close friends, family or the bond of soldiers that fought beside each other in battle.
  • Ludus – Light, playful affection that is displayed in flirtatious way.
  • Pragma – Mature love of a long-term couple that grows over a long time of time which involves the practice compromise, understanding, goodwill and commitment.
  • Agape – The generalized love of humanity and the universe.
  • Philautia – Self-love. Not to be mistaking for selfish love, self-love is the love of one self, making it possible to love others.
  • Eros – Passionate, sexual desire. Although very intense and can cause much trouble, eros will burn itself out unless it grows into a deeper state of love, such as pragma or philia.

The existence of love is all of the states mentioned above. However, experiencing all the states of love from one person is not how love works, which is why people socialize with friends, family seek mates and join sports teams for camaraderie; to achieve all the different states of desired love.

The true nature of what love is will forever remain an elusive theory because love is not a physical thing that can be analyzed in a lab. All that scientists can do is examine the way our brains react when love is felt. Each state of love has it’s own different qualities on whether it’s love for a parent, siblings, one’s country, a higher power such as God or a passionate love for example. Each state of love typically has particular traits that are common for the type, such as the unconditional love from a parent, the fickle or one-sidedness of a sexual love, the reciprocated and steadfastness of a long-term love or the blind and tragic of true love for one that doesn’t reciprocate the love or for a person of a bad character.

All forms of love help nurture people and promote the evolution of the human race, and each type of love plays an important role of human existence. Without the passionate love, people would have only commitment and less desire to reproduce. However, without the long-term commitment love, there would be merely infatuation and likely a shallow outlook upon the world. And above all, without nurturing love surely even the strongest of man would wither and cease to exist.

As with the perception life itself, love depends on what state a person is in. If love is stable and secure, existing in it can go unnoticed like breathing. However, if a person is deprived of it, love can become an obsession that consumes the spirit and can even bring physical pain. Of the greatest stories of all time, love is the theme. Not simply the romantic love stories such as the famous Romeo and Juliette, but the love of family, parental love and love of a country. Fascinating is how consuming it can be, how in a moment one’s life can be consumed and dedicated despite any obstacle that may stand in the way. This deep inspiration of passion is what inspires in the heart of man to say “love is everything.”

What is my IP?


What is an IP Address?

An IP address is a modern technology computing term that designates number to a computer or other digital device and allows it to communicate with another computer or device across the Internet. IP addresses create the ability to locate and connect billions of digital devices and differentiated from other devices. A computer needs an IP address to connect and communicate to remote devices like a person needs a mailing address to receive mail.

What does IP stand for?

The term “IP” stands for Internet Protocol, making the “IP address” short for “Internet Protocol address.” The Internet Protocol is a set of rules that dictate activity, to complete tasks and perform actions across the web. Two-way communication is made possible by the Internet Protocol address because the IP address’s ability to connect digital devices across the vast interconnected grid of the Internet.

An IP address consists of four sets of numbers, separated with a single dot. Each set of the numbers can range from 0 to 255, for example an IP address may look like: This set of numbers is very important because it is what allows information and data to be sent and received across the Internet, ensuring Facebook status updates, messages or images arrive to their correct destination. Without the power of the IP address, sending or receiving anything across the web would not be possible.

An IP address is either static or dynamic. A static IP address never changes and serves as a permanent Internet address so remote computers and other digital devices can contact that IP address. A static IP address reveals information about the physical location of the computer such as the continent, country, city and city. The IP address of the computer being used to view this article is posted at the top of the page.

A dynamic IP address is temporary and is assigned at the time a computer or digital device connects to the Internet. Essentially a dynamic IP address is borrowed from a pool of IP addressed shared among different devices. Only a limited number of static IP addresses so most Internet service providers reserve assigned IP addresses to share among multiple subscribers as a dynamic IP address. This makes for lower cost and the availability to serve more subscribers.Static IP addresses are typically preferred for voice over the Internet protocol (VOIP), this is when the IP address over the Internet is used to transmit phone calls instead of traditional circuit transmissions, typically to save money on long-distance charges. Static IP addresses are also preferred for data intense applications such as online gaming. This is because it makes it easy to locate and connect to computers with a stable, static IP address. Dynamic DNS service makes it easy to connect to dynamic IP addresses since it enables other devices to locate the device using the dynamic IP address.Since static IP addresses are easier to track for data mining purposes they are considered somewhat less secure than dynamic IP addresses. However, practicing safe Internet use can reduce this security issue and keep a computer secure irregardless of what type of IP address is being used.

What is a thermostat – how does a thermostat work?


A thermostat is a mechanism that both tells the temperature and controls the heating or cooling system to maintain a consistent stable temperature. When a room, home or building’s temperature goes below a certain point, the system will turn on the heat, and if it goes above a certain temperature, it will turn on the cooling system. Once the area is either warmed or cooled to the desired temperature, the mechanism will then turn off the heating or cooling system. The two main types of thermostats are mechanical or digital. Most digital thermostats have advanced features such as programming to automatically turn the system on or off at a designated time or day of the week.

Mechanical thermostats utilize physical sensors to measure the air temperature, these sensors can be wax pellets, glass tubes filled with gas, glass tubes filled with gas or bimetallic strips. The change in temperature will create a change in the sensor, making it expand or contract, which will in turn activate the proper switch to start the heating or cooling system and fans ventilation if part of the system. Older thermostats use glass tubes filled with mercury, however the use of mercury has been outlawed in most places because of it’s toxic nature. (see mad hatter disease)

The most commonly used sensor in mechanical thermostats is a bimetallic strip which uses two thin strips of different metals, such as brass and steel, copper and brass or copper and steel that are bonded together in a spiral coil. As the temperature increases or decreases the two different metals expand and contract at different rates. This causes the strip to bend, completing an electrical circuit activates the heating or cooling system. When the temperature raises or lowers to the set temperature, the metal strip moves, the electrical circuit is disconnected and the heating or cooling system turns off.

Most modern homes have digital thermostats that were either installed in the construction or have replaced less efficient mechanical thermostats. Instead of physical sensors, such as those in mechanical thermostats, digital thermostats use electronic sensors to measure the temperature. The digital sensors work the same way physical sensors work; once a temperature goes above or below the desired temperature the heating or cooling system is activated until the desired temperature is achieved at which time the thermostat turns the heating or cooling system off.


A mechanical thermostat is typically a dial or single slider switch that is turned or slid to the desired temperature. A dial type of mechanical thermostat has temperature numbers printed on it and the thermostat body has a marker, typically a line or small arrow. The users turns the dial clockwise or counter-clockwise until the desired temperature number on the dial aligns with the marker. A slider thermostat has a slider lever that will typically have line, groove or slot in the center of it. There is a slot on the thermostat with numbers on it representing the temperature, the user slides the lever either left or right or up and down (depending on whether the slot is on the top, bottom or one side of the thermostat) until the marker on the lever aligns with the desired temperature.

Digital thermostats typically have a display screen with push buttons and possibly levers it to enter settings. More modern digital thermostats have replaced the buttons and levers with touch screen technology. Programmable models can operate the heating and cooling system at certain times, such as when people are sleeping or when people are at school or work. This makes a home not only more comfortable, but conserves energy and costs less money since the system doesn’t run unnecessarily, such as when people are not at home. More advanced models can have times when the heating or cooling system begins adjusting the temperature then fully activate the desired temperature when people begin to arrive, such as an office building or school.

Temperatures are typically set to the desired comfortable temperature, however some people set the temperature off by a few degrees to conserve energy. Typically people consider approximately 70° – 72° Fahrenheit (21.1° – 22.2° Celsius) the most comfortable room temperature. However, most people typically don’t notice the difference between 72° and 74° (22.2° – 23.3° Celsius), so adjusting the desired temperature slightly higher can save both energy and money without affecting the comfort level.

It’s recommended by some experts to set the heating system to activate at 67°Fahrenheit (19.4° Celsius) and the cooling system to activate at 77° Fahrenheit (25.6° Celsius). Temperature settings can be adjusted at different times of the year for weather changes and because people typically wear more clothes in the winter and less clothes in the summer even when indoors. Typically people are more comfortable at cooler temperatures resulting in people turning down the desired warmth temperature or turning up the desired cooling temperature while sleeping.

Water conservation


What is water conservation? Water conservation is the act of reducing water usage. Water conservation can be performed by people, organizations, companies or government agencies. This can be done by addressing the water shortage issue, by changing consumption or reducing water usage. Water conservation became a hot topic and was highly addressed in the late 20th century as the developing world began to consume large amounts of water while many people did not have access to safe, clean drinking water.

When water supplies are limited it becomes much more obvious why water conservation is necessary. Water conservation policies can change during a drought, or during summer months in desert areas where restrictions may be placed on water usage such a watering lawn or washing cars in driveways. Water conservation is important in dryer areas, such as desert areas, because the water is either shipped it in or delivered through aqueducts from distant areas, and the policies in those far away areas can dictate how much water is sent.

Water prices is another important motivation for water conservation. The most prominent factors of water cost is how easy is it to deliver water to an area, how far it must be transported and how much treatment is needed to have the water safe for consumption. It is very expensive to treat water to be made safe for consumption and for agricultural uses. Water prices can be effected by not only how much water there is, but how much water treatment is required. Using less water in general helps keep water prices down and allows water to be used for other resources.

Next to air, water is the most important element to sustain human life, which is why some people passionately promote water conservation. For the most part, water is a renewable resource. However, processing water to be made safe to be re-entered into the water supply and safe for drinking is a very costly and time-consuming process. It requires many steps to remove biological waste, chemicals or hazardous materials and make it safe once again. In communities that are very conscious of water conservation, using water for the lawn, to wash the car or for industrial use is highly disapproved of. Local government may issue an order to discontinue certain water uses, such as watering lawns and washing cars in driveways, and can issue steep fines for offenders.

Water is one of the most valuable resources on earth, for humans it’s one of the three major requirements to sustain life, which is why water conservation is so important. Water conservation helps to ensure there will be clean water for future generations and for distribution to other regions of the world.

Water conservation techniques:


  • If using an automated dishwasher, be sure to load the dishwasher to it’s fullest capacity before running it.
  • Avoid doing small loads of laundry, maximize the amount of clothes in the washing machine (without overloading of course)
  • Install water conservation filters in taps in around the home.
  • Water lawns and gardens during the night hours to avoid evaporation.
  • Take short showers instead of baths.
  • Turn water off during a shower while shampooing and using soap on the body then turn water back on to rinse off.
  • Take only one shower a day when possible.
  • Do not pour out excess drinking water from meals, collect the water to boil for tea or coffee or use it for watering plants.
  • Implement more desert friendly yards and gardens in hot areas. For example, use rocks, paving and succulents that require little or no watering instead of grass or other plants that require large amounts of water.
  • Fix leaky pipes and faucets, a drippy faucet and use as much as a gallon a day.
  • Purchase products that promote and advertise water conservation and more water efficient.

What is turbulence?


Turbulence is movement caused from chaotic or non-deterministic motion or property changes. There are many factors that can cause turbulence and it can occur in both gases and liquids. The opposite of turbulence or turbulent flow motion is laminar flow, which is when the gas or fluid has a smooth and regular motion.

When there is an interruption to the flow or either the gas or fluid. When a liquid flows into a solid surface, momentum diffuses across the boundary layer creating turbulence where the liquid meets the solid. Turbulence in the air is caused from something like two different weather fronts meeting or where a storm is forming creating a change in the air pressure. Turbulence in the air is also caused by objects such as a mountain or a building, this type of can be seen in wind tunnel experiments.

Although it is understood what turbulence exactly is, it’s hard to understand or predict the behavior of turbulence since it is an irregularity of time and space and can defy logical predictions. This is because there are several factors that can alter the movement of gas or fluid and such irregular movement involves many different rates of speed that can alter very rapidly. This is why when an airplane can be moved around in so many different ways, especially depending on where the craft is located in the turbulence.

Since air moves across the earth in many different rates of speed and pressure it contains a large amount of turbulence. Typically people can not see turbulence with the naked eye because air is clear and con not be seen. However, if particles such as a mist or clouds are in the air the turbulence can be seen moving the particles. Turbulence can also be seen if an objected is launched into the air and it’s path and speed alters as is enters different parts of the turbulence or in a wind tunnel experiment to observe aero-dynamics of something.

If water is turbulent in household plumbing, the water will come out of the tap in an irregular flow, typically described as “sputtering.” Over a fire the smoke can be seen to come off the fire fairly direct until it comes into contact with turbulence at which time it begins to swirl and eddy. Part of a fires turbulence can be caused from the heat of the air from the fire coming into contact with the cooler surrounding air.

In human relations turbulence is used to describe an unstable and unpleasant state. An example would be “Their relationship was filled with turbulence in the later years of the marriage,” or “When the child acted irrational and highly tempered it made family time very turbulent.”

What is a duvet?


A duvet is a large bag-like cover that a blanket or comforter is inserted into, traditionally a down-feather filled comforter. A duvet is designed to cover a bed in replacement of a blanket, quilt, afghan or comforter with no duvet. A duvet both protects a comforter and changes the style the bedding (most feather-down filled comforters are all white or off-white in color). In warm climates, especially in summer, just a single duvet with no comforter in it is usually warm enough. The duvet likely originated in Europe, however it is used world-wide now. The origin of the word “duvet” can be traced back to the Old Norse “dunn” which refers to “down.” The French picked up the word “dunn” and over the centuries it evolved to “duvet.”

Despite their differences, a duvet and a comforter are at times confused to be the same thing. However, a duvet is made to be used as a cover for a down comforter. This is helpful for cleaning since a down comforter can be difficult to clean and a duvet can be removed and typically machine washed. A duvet is a flat bag like cover where a comforter is usually filled with down feathers and is very fluffy. A duvet can also be used by itself as a light-weight cover with no other blankets or covers.

A comforter has no detachable cover, is used to be decorative as well as functional, and the entire comforter has to be washed as a whole, typically dry-cleaned. Since comforters are filled with down feathers they are puffy instead of flat.

When shopping for a duvet it’s a beneficial to look for quality fabric and a well-sewn product. Color, patterns, quality and price can really vary for a duvet to match just about whatever a consumer’s needs may be. A duvet is a nice way to change a bedding style and a great way to protect a comforter and a duvet is also a great cover for hotter climates or summer months when a comforter is not necessary.

What is a shofar?


A shofar is a horn that is polished and has openings at the top and bottom. Traditionally a shofar is made from a ram’s horn and is used for Jewish religious purposes and come in a variety of sizes. The blowing of the shofar is incorporated with synagogue services during Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. A shofar can not ever be made of a cow horn or calf horn because this goes against the worship of the Golden Calf which is condemned in the Torah. A shofar also can not be made from any animals considered un-kosher because the shofar is used primarily for Jewish ceremonies.

Any person of the Jewish faith may become a shofar blower. A shofar blower is called a Tokea, meaning “blaster.” A Tokea usually quickly learns that it takes less effort top blow the shofar by vibrating the lips and blowing on the side of the mouth. Blowing a shofar is similar to blowing a trumpet and be quite a job on certain days of observance, for example, the shofar is blown 100 times to signify the new year on Rosh Hashanah. On the day of Sabbath, the shofar is not used to prevent the Tokea from bringing the shofar different places which would constitute work. And if Rosh Hashanah falls on the day of Sabbath the religious observance with the shofar will take place the next day.

Good care must be taken of the shofar to avoid damage because a damaged shofar will not produce the proper sound, especially if there are holes in it other than the two intended ones. The shofar can become warped from moisture caused from people blowing in it.

Jewish people are supposed to be inspired or made aware that spiritual matters are to take place when the sound of the shofar is heard.

What is dance?


Dance is the art of moving the body usually to a beat, rhythm or music. Many cultures around the world perform dance as a form of emotional expression, exercise, idea expression, or story telling in either a social, spiritual or performance environment. Dance can also be considered non-verbal communication between humans, animals or insects such as the movement patterns in mating rituals typically called “mating dances.”

What defines or constitutes dance depends on accepted cultural and social norms and on artistic, aesthetic and moral standards. The definition of dance can range from virtuoso techniques such as the ballet to functional movement (such as folk dance or ball room dance). There is also martial arts kata that’s compared to dance, and some sports such as figure skating, synchronized swimming or gymnastics. Inanimate objects such as the wind through leaves or the tides of the ocean could also be considered a form of dance.

Dance happens in many forms and has many styles and genres. There are classical dance styles such as the tango or the waltz, group dance routines such the electric slide or square dancing, there is street dancing such as break dancing or flash-mob, interpretive dance such as that in Africa or the Ballet to mention a few. The reason for the act of dancing can vary as well; it can be for ceremonial, social, for exercise, for entertainment in front of an audience, participatory, to tell a story or just for fun. The dance moves themselves can be random without significant meaning or have symbolic meaning or represent unspoken words as part of a story or performance.

It is not really possible to determine when dance became part of human culture because it does not leave behind any physical attributes like cave paintings, stone tools or ancient hunting instruments do. However, as far back in recorded history as we can understand, dance has been an important part of human culture for rituals, ceremony, celebrations, entertainment, story telling and tradition. There are even Bhimbetka paintings in India and Egyptian tomb paintings dating back as far as 3300 BC depicting figures dancing. Of some of the oldest methods of dance were those used to tell stories of myths. Dance was likely also used to express feelings towards the opposite sex and for mating rituals before spoken or written language had developed, not unlike the dance rituals that animals still perform today. Dance was also used to pass down stories from generation to generation before the use of writing. Other uses for dance may have been as a way to enter trance states to perform healing rituals. This form of dance as a precursor for healing rituals is still used in many cultures today.

Contemporary dance can be linked to dance historical dance moves of ancient times and many dance moves that are considered new and fresh are actually recycled dance moves with different choreography. So as long as people exist and for whatever reason the act dance is performed, dance will go on as an important part of human culture.

What is a ballad?


A ballad refers to a form of verse that tells a story typically set to music. Ballads such as this will usually have few characters, may include dialog, dramatic plots and have action. Ballads are derived from dancing songs of the medieval chanson balladée or ballade. Until the 19th century, ballads were very similar to the popular poetry and song or the British Isles from the later medieval period and substantially used across Europe and later in North Africa, Australia and the Americas. From the 18th and on, composers and poets used the musical form to produce lyrical ballads. There are numerous ballad folk songs, some notable ones include “John Henry,” “Robin Hood,” “The Fox,” “Clementine,” and “The Ballad of the Tea Party.” In the opera, a ballad is used to recount the plot’s backstory. Later in the 19th century a ballad took on the meaning of a popular slow love song, especially in the pop or rock genre.